39Our review of Olduvai assemblages suggests that some of the items Leakey (1971) classified as polyhedrons are unmodified natural pieces, whose multiple angles and ridges were caused by casual fractures, not by knapping or pounding processes. All Bone Clones® products are made in the USA. Analyse technologique des outils lithiques non taillés des Bed I et II. Hammerstones with angle fracture usually present an unmodified holding surface, whilst the opposite area is covered by battered ridges broken during the percussion process. A wheel shape with a flat end and rounded edges, the Oblate Spheroid carbide burr is to be used for cutting in, removal of material, carving and defining in many hard substances such as metals, stone, ceramic, porcelain, reinforced plastics and hard wood. These features, altogether with the battering of ridges and the convex angles on the detachments, suggest that these stone tools were made by activities other than knapping. 14) is variable, ranging between 85 mm (e.g. 1b – or another intermediate piece between the transmitter and the receptor –fig. Consequently, it can be proposed that the production of tools (i.e. New York: Aldine and Gruyter. There is an increase of quartz hammerstones in the more recent sites such as FC West and TK. 24Consequently, we can speculate about the functionality of this type of hammerstone. 71Zooarchaeologists have highlighted the relevance of percussion processes carried out in the early archaeological sites (i.e. and 733 gr. 1997; Texier & Roche 1995). 1a-) and passive percussion elements (hard pieces that receive the force transmitted by another item, either to modify the transmitter object – fig. The first group encompasses fragments that emulate edge core flakes, detaching parts of the anvil’s natural percussion platform (platform A) and plane C. Some of them show triangular transversal sections and an elongated morphology (group 1.1. 32Later, Kleindienst (1962) established three categories, missiles (natural pieces with no human modification), polyhedrons (objects with several facets and negatives) and bolas (quasi-spherical pieces with a smooth surface obtained by battering processes). In A. Berthelet et J. Chavaillon (Eds. tools with three or more working edges, usually intersecting”), spheroids (“. Consequently, there is a high degree of ambiguity embodied in the classification system proposed in this paper; still, we have tried to reduce inaccuracies as much as possible, by grounding our description of tool types on criteria such as the presence or absence of step and plunging fractures, pitting, battering, scars, bulbs, knapping platforms, shapes of dorsal and ventral sides, etc. 14The most common active hammers in any palaeolithic archaeological site are hammerstones used to hit another lithic item. 1a-) and passive percussion elements (hard pieces that receive the force transmitted by another item, either to modify the transmitter object – fig. Therefore, Olduvai polyhedrons and subspheroids/ spheroids could not be consecutive stages of the same chaîne opératoire, since raw materials used in the production of each artefact type are different. Consequently, Jones (1994) concluded that the processes that generated spheroids and subspheroids, linked to intense percussion activities, were unrelated to the knapping processes envisaged in the production of Olduvai polyhedrons. Naturally, you may find many other uses for these display bases. In C. Roubet, H.-J. Those flakes can then be used as ad hoc tools, or reworked into stone tools… 13), abundant impact marks are inflicted in platform A, especially on its edges, which causes the abrading of the periphery of the anvil. All Bone Clones, Sawyer & Maley Neanderthal Reconstruction, MS-201-SET Set of 6 Fossil Hominid Tools from East Africa, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Association of Applied Paleontological Sciences. This oval black resin base is suitable for use with various Bone Clones items, and is a perfect contrast for showcasing the bone-color skulls. Figure 20 - Relative frequencies of the different percussion categories in the sites with the greatest variety of pounded piecesFigure 20 - Fréquences relatives des différentes catégories de percussion pour les sites avec la plus grande variété de pièces percutées. At Olduvai, there are tools in different stages of use that allow reconstructing technical gestures embodied in the shaping of spheroid morphologies. As aforementioned, Leakey (1971) referred to shaped anvils in the Developed Oldowan, in which the flat upper and lower surfaces of blocks would be accompanied by flaking of the circumference. Nonetheless, we consider that, on the basis of a technological approach, it is possible to evaluate the prevalence of the battered items, and to assess whether they can be included in the chaînes opératoires of débitage, or are a result of other stone tool use operations. According to these authors, polyhedrons, subspheroids and spheroids proceed from the same concept, the controlled reduction of a blank to obtain a regular volume distributed on the basis of a virtual point that has a centre of symmetry, in other words a sphere. 56Our reanalysis has shown that at sites such as FLK North or TK, many of the pieces originally classified as flakes or flake fragments (Leakey 1971) are actually by-products detached from the anvils due to percussion activities, and not the intentional results from débitage. Figure 19 also shows that in Middle-Upper Bed II, except for EF-HR, different modalities of battering items accompany classic hammerstones. Eventually, irregular edges are caused by pounding, and ridges finally become rounded again given the intensity of battering. Many of the hammerstones with fracture angles have similar edges and scars to those shown by core types such as choppers. 7a). Even in some of the earliest Oldowan assemblages (Delagnes & Roche 2005), the main feature identifying items as hammerstones is the presence of areas with concentrated pitting, which depending on the intensity of use may provoke shattered surfaces. 10). Evolutionary Anthropology, 9, p. 248-57. PALEO est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International. The fact is that many of the so-called spheroids are quartz cobbles with natural rounded shapes. ), The Use of Tools by Human and Non-human Primates. 42Conversely, some of the items considered as subspheroids or spheroids are, according to our study, detached chunks showing battering marks, and not pieces that have been used directly for percussion activities. Only a few cores have been assigned to the polyhedral system that, according to the original definition (Leakey 1971-p. Conversely, some of the items considered as subspheroids or spheroids are, according to our study, detached chunks showing battering marks, and not pieces that have been used directly for percussion activities. Despite we have documented some cores with battering marks on knapping platforms which indicate their previous use as anvils, this pattern entailing the reutilization of tool is not analogous to the anvil shaping process Leakey (1971) proposed. Schick & Toth 1994; Sahnouni et al. 21) support this suggestion, since there is an overlapping of hammerstone and spheroid sizes. or H.? Thus, polyhedrons, spheroids and subspheroids would be different stages of the same chaîne opératoire, in which these pieces are not by-products of débitage and battering processes, but the consequence of an intentional façonnage (Texier & Roche 1995-p. 35). 26The identification of hammerstones with battered dihedral angles leads to discuss about the meaning and validity of the term chopper, as defined by Mary Leakey. 5). Ignacio de la Torre and Rafael Mora, « A technological analysis of non-flaked stone tools in Olduvai Beds I & II. According to the scientist Charles Darwin (1809–1882), evolution depends on a process called natural selection. Intended for generally smaller skulls from our collection. The African Archaeological Review, 5, p. 3-17. quartz tabular blocks), the process observed in Olduvai Bed II is the same as the one proposed by Schick and Toth (1994) and Jones (1994); quartz blocks, after being used as hammerstones, end up taking on a rounded, spherical shape. Consequently, although there are some necessarily- static anvils such as those from MNK (samples weighing over 10 kgs) or SHK (with an anvil over 20 kgs. Another noticeable trend is the metrical homogeneity of classic hammerstones throughout the Olduvai sequence. Ignacio de la Torre and Rafael Mora, « A technological analysis of non-flaked stone tools in Olduvai Beds I & II. 1. "The spheroid presence at Qesem Cave, dating back between 200,000 and 400,000 years, is the final appearance of this kind of item in the Middle East Lower Paleolithic and marks the end of a … The resultant tool can be as simple as a single flake that … In this case, their classification as by-products from percussion processes rather than from débitage is established given the irregularity of the dorsal face (which usually is battered but does not show scars from previous extractions), the sinuous concavity on the ventral face (rare on conchoidal fracture), and the thickness and irregularity of their edges. On the opposite side, it has been proposed that the spheroids are preconceived morphotypes obtained from façonnage (Texier & Roche 1995). Human Evolution and the Dawn of technology. 1994 - A quantitative diagnosis of notches made by hammerstone percussion and carnivore gnawing on bovid long bones. We appreciate comments made by Pierre Jean Texier, Dietrich Stout and Anne Delagnes to this paper. Passive hammerstones or anvils, i.e. They are not particularly large items and could be handled easily. Willoughby (1987) also suggests that spheroid forms could have been hammers associated to anvils, since according to her there is a correlation between the frequencies of both types of tools in the Olduvai sequence. She believes that spheroids were linked to pounding activities, and that instead of being an intentional end product, it is more likely that tools acquired a spherical form through their use as hammers (Willoughby 1987). SAHNOUNI M. 1991 - Étude comparative des galets taillés polyédriques, subsphériques et sphériques des gisements d´Ain Hanech (Algérie Orientale) et d´Olduvai (Tanzanie). The fact that blocks were used for percussion activities during a certain stage (our stage 1) in which, due to the uneven character of tabular shapes, they could not have been used as classic hammerstones, makes it hard to believe that the intense battering processes that led to the obtaining of completely spheroid shapes (stage 3) are linked to lithic knapping. 35Texier and Roche (1995) present a different view, in which spherical objects are the result of a well-reasoned organisation of shaping. Leakey (1971) pointed out that during the Oldowan, unmodified cuboid blocks and cobblestones were selected as anvils, whereas in the Developed Oldowan such blanks would be shaped before they were used. 61An alternative is that Olduvai passive hammers were part of the anvil-chipping technique, which consists on the striking of a core held in both hands against a anvil on the ground (see i.e. In the tools group, Leakey (1971) included all objects she considered as standardised morphologies. Florence: Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria. Journal of Anthropological Research, 47, p. 153-176. Tervuren, Belgie Annalen, Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, p. 81-108. Unpublished Ph.D. BUNN H. T. 1986 - Patterns of Skeletal Representation and Hominid Subsistence Activities at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, and Koobi Fora, Kenya. ), Préhistoire Africaine, Mélanges au Doyen Lionel Balout. Figure 5 - Example of a typical hammerstone with fracture angles from TK Upper Floor. Under these premises, and assuming the distinction between active percussion elements (hard pieces that transmit a force intended to modify another item –. Finally, in Olduvai Bed II there are quartz tools totally rounded by battering; these items can be considered as shaped or “genuine” spheroids, and compose stage 3 or the final phase of modification, once they have lost completely their original tabular shape. There are two patterns within the group of hammerstones with fracture angles. Eventually, irregular edges are caused by pounding, and ridges finally become rounded again given the intensity of battering. Figure 16 - Weight in kilograms of the general categories represented at each of the analysed sites. Nonetheless, such skills have been usually discussed by the assessment of knapping abilities, whereas systematic analysis of percussion tools in the Early Stone Age are not abundant (e.g. New Jersey, Prentice Hall, p. 429-449. Journal of Archaeological Science, 12, p. 101-120. Fractures are caused by “simultaneous scars” on both sides of ridges: when hitting the edges generated by previous battering, the impact force provokes new fractures and by-products are detached from both sides of the ridge, often simultaneously (fig. 68Relative frequencies show a negative correlation between classic hammerstones and spheroids (see fig. Liège, ERAUL 112. Journal of Archaeological Science, 1996, p. 493-507. 38Going back to Olduvai, Jones (1994-p. 276-277) also provides convincing morphometric arguments, as he demonstrates that it is unlikely for subspheroids to come from polyhedrons; upon analysing the size of both samples, subspheroids are generally larger than polyhedrons, hence subspheroids could not have been produced during a later reduction sequence. 46Regarding those items that really experience shape modification (i.e. According to Alimen (1963), negatives produced during the percussion process on anvils can be differentiated from those made by flaking, and we believe it is possible to do so in the Olduvai case. CHAVAILLON J., PIPERNO, M. The even surfaces of these tabular blocks facilitate one of the flat sides to be used as a percussion platform (A), whilst the opposite side (B) is positioned on stable ground. As stated before, the lack of traces denoting use on the ridges of choppers cannot be put down to preservation factors. 64After describing above the technological and morphological features of percussive tools, in this section a quantitative assessment of percussion items will be presented, with a view to evaluating the relevance of percussion processes on each assemblage. In R. Bonnichsen et M. H. Sorg (Eds. Oxford, Clarendon Press, p. 158-168. Percentages of tool types throughout the Beds I and II sequence show interesting patterns. 12Under these premises, and assuming the distinction between active percussion elements (hard pieces that transmit a force intended to modify another item – fig. Tant les types de percussion reconnus à Olduvai que les caractéristiques principales des enclumes, des percuteurs et des produits obtenus ont été systématisés. Note lack of battering on the edge of the piecesFigure 8 - Détail d’arêtes intactes de choppers de FLK North. Chavaillon (1979) subdivided the hammerstones and battered cobbles group into active hammerstones (which generally have a regular, oval or rounded shape) and passive hammerstones. ISAAC G. L., HARRIS J. W. K., KROLL E. M. 1997 - The Stone Artefact Assemblages: A Comparative Study. This dichotomy can be established on the basis of the sedimentary origin of quartz blanks. ), Bone modification. Unfortunately, our results are not very enlightening in this respect: although at FC West and TK there is a co-variation in both categories of items (fig. Figure 6 - Diagram of the process entailing the fracturing of the hammerstone that leads to the detachment of fragments from both sides of the ridgeFigure 6 - Schéma du processus impliquant la fracturation du percuteur qui conduit au détachement de fragments des deux côtés du bord. Kyara 1999). and 733 gr. BOESCH C., BOESCH H. 1993 - Diversity of tool use and tool-making in wild chimpanzees. Stratigraphy, Ecology, and Cultural Change in the Middle Pleistocene. Le Brun-Ricalens 1989). ), Bone modification. The Oldowan is a term used to describe the earliest evidences of the human fossil record. 54Usually, negatives on plane C coincide with the battering on the edges of platforms A and/or B. The end result is the creation of sharp-edged stone flakes from the second rock. WILLOUGHBY P. R. 1987 - Spheroids and Batterd Stones in the African Early Stone Age. 47As stated above, genuine lava polyhedrons are linked to stone tool knapping and generally have no battering traces. This ambivalence of tool- type classification does not refer solely to active percussion elements; it has been documented that some cores were used previously as anvils. The Lake Rudolf Basin quartz blanks is different ( 1971-p. During the Pleistocene. 1987 - spheroids and Batterd stones in the USA tools in Olduvai, there pieces. 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